Spotlight 1


The many thousands of different chemical reactions carried out simultaneously and successively in living cells are closely coordinated. Electron transport is closely linked to biological activity. Electrons can be carried by diffusible molecules picking up electrons at one location and delivering them to another one as well as being transferred along molecular chains. Moreover, biological polar molecules and polymer structures with energy supply (e.g., microtubules) can get excited and generate an endogenous electromagnetic field with a strong electrical component in their vicinity. The endogenous electrical fields through action on charges, on dipoles and multipoles, and through polarisation exert forces and can drive charges and particles in the cell. It is well known that the majority of proteins are electrically polar and represent electric dipoles.

A protein polymer network e.g., the cytoskeleton is a dynamic organiser of eukaryotic cells. The cytoskeleton exerts forces and generates movements without any major chemical changes. The cytoskeleton reorganises continually as the cell changes its shape, divides, and responds to its environment. Indeed, the fundamental structure of the cytoskeleton formed by microtubules satisfies the basic requirements for excitation of vibrations and generation of an oscillating electromagnetic field.

A Quick Review of Maxwell's Equations

The general theory of electromagnetic phenomena is based on Maxwell’s equations, which constitute a set of four physical equations relating space and time changes of electric and magnetic fields to their scalar and vector source densities. In a stationary medium, all quantities are evaluated in a reference frame in which the observer and all the surfaces and volumes are assumed to be at rest. For stationary media, Maxwell’s equations in differential form are given by:

In integral form, Maxwell’s equations are written as follows:


= electric field intensity .
= magnetic flux density .
= electric flux density .
= magnetic field intensity .
= free electric charge density .
= net free charge, in coulombs , inside any closed surface .
= free electric current density .

In general, the quantities in (1.1) and (1.2) are arbitrary functions of the position, and time, . Maxwell’s equations, involve only macroscopic electromagnetic fields and, explicitly, only macroscopic densities of free-charge , which are free to move within the medium, giving rise to the free-current densities, . The effect of the macroscopic charges and current densities bound to the medium’s molecules are implicitly included in the auxiliary magnitudes and which are related to the electric and magnetic fields, and by the so-called constitutive equations that describe the behavior of the medium.

Three of Maxwell’s equations (1.1a), (1.1c), (1.1d), or their alternative integral formulations (1.2a), (1.2c), (1.2d), are normally known by the names of the scientists who derived them. For its similarity with (1.1a), equation (1.1b) is usually termed the Gauss’ law for magnetic fields, for which the integral formulation is given by (1.2b). These four equations as a whole are associated with the name of Maxwell because he was responsible for completing them, adding to Ampère’s original equation, , the displacement current density term or, in short, the displacement current, , as an additional vector source for the field . This term has the same dimensions as the free- current density but its nature is different because no free charge movement is involved. Its inclusion in Maxwell’s equations is fundamental to predict the existence of electromagnetic waves which can propagate through empty space at the constant velocity of light . The concept of displacement current is also fundamental to deduce from (1.1d) the principle of charge conservation by means of the continuity equation given by:

or, in integral form as follows:

With these equations, Maxwell validated the concept of field previously introduced by Faraday to explain the remote interactions of charges and currents, and showed not only that the electric and magnetic fields are interrelated but also that they are in fact two aspects of a single concept, the electromagnetic field.

Maxwell’s equations (1.1) can be written without using the artificial fields and as follows:


= electric permittivity of free space .
= magnetic permeability of free space .


Company Updates


Algenet has begun preliminary talks with a top UK university hospital to trial its ground-breaking 3D mammography technology aimed at better detection and diagnosis of early stage breast cancer. Watch for updates in 2017!


Read the technical series 'Spotlight' available online now!


New Science Frontier article

The development of a new matrix operator could have interesting applications in quantum physics.


New research paper published in International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

Extending the 4 × 4 Darbyshire Operator Using n-Dimensional Dirac Matrices.


New Science Frontier article

New computational methods for simulating nanoparticle dynamics for targeted anticancer drug therapeutics.


New research paper published in Cancer Research Journal

Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Newly Formed Microvascular Networks Surrounding Solid Tumours: A Parallel Programming Approach.


New Science Frontier article

Innovative advances in parallel computing open up the possibilities of virtual cancer experiments in 3D.


New Science Frontier article

Developments in parallel processing are paving the way for in silico experiments to take up the challenge of aiding in a cure for cancer outside of the laboratory.

Global News


Long-term treatment with Olaparib can maintain quality of life and stop cancer progressing

AstraZeneca has today reported that the drug Olaparib (Lynparza) can be used as part of a maintenance programme to ensure women maintain their quality of life, with few side effects, throughout their treatment.


New tumor-shrinking nanoparticle to fight cancer, prevent recurrence

A research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease.


Every child with cancer to have tumour DNA sequenced to find best treatment

Every child with cancer in Britain will have their tumour DNA sequenced so they can get the best possible drugs and help the UK catch up with treatment in Europe and the US.


3D colour x-ray that can zoom in on tumours will 'revolutionise' cancer treatment

The American Association for the Advancement of Science was told of the British developed tool x-CSI, which is described as 'low-dose, high-resolution, non-invasive and specific'.


Skin cancer breakthrough 2017: Melanoma spread reduced by up To 90% with new man-made compound

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer is the world, and although melanoma is a more rare form, it is also the most deadly. New research from Michigan State University may soon change this.


NHS cancer testing service 'at breaking point'

Tests for cancer diagnosis are under threat as labs struggle to cope with rising demand, a charity says.


Breast cancer: The first sign is not always a lump

Around 1 in 6 women eventually diagnosed with breast cancer initially go to their doctors with a symptom other than a lump, according to a new study.